Ten Years of the SC XY Bandwidth Challenge

November 30, 2009

The SC 09 Conference took place early this month in Portland. The Bandwidth Challenge (BWC) is an interesting and friendly rivalry between research groups to develop high performance network protocols and interesting applications that use them. The Bandwidth Challenge was started ten years ago at SC 99, which also took place in Portland.

Some of the history is available at the web site scinet.supercomputing.org. For example, in 2000, there were 2 OC-48 (2.5 Gbps) circuits that connected the research exhibits at the conference to external research networks and the challenge was to develop network protocols and applications that could fill these circuits. The winner of the BWC (called the Network Bandwidth Challenge in 2000) was a scientific visualization application called Visapult that reached 1.48 Gbps and transferred 262 GB in 1 hour (providing 582 Mbps of sustained bandwidth utilization).

This year, there were approximately 24 10 GE circuits and one 40 GE circuit that connected research exhibits to external exhibits and one of the applications reached a bandwidth utilization of over 114 Gbps.

I have had an interest in the BWC over the years, because you cannot analyze data without accessing it and accessing and transporting large remote datasets has always been a challenge. To say it slightly different, for large datasets and high performance networks, network transport protocols are an important element of the analytic infrastructure.

It’s useful to know the bandwidth delay product of a network, which is the product of the network capacity (in Mbps, say) multiplied by the round trip time (RTT) of a packet (in sec). This measures the amount of data on the network that has been transmitted but not yet received. This can be MB of data for wide area high performance networks. This data must be buffered so that it can be resent if a packet is not received.

Challenges that have been worked out over the past decade include:

  • Improving TCP so that it is effective over networks with high bandwidth delay products. One of the successes is the development of FAST TCP, a variant of the TCP protocol.
  • Developing reliable and friendly UDP-based protocols that are effective over networks with high bandwidth delay products. For example, the open source UDT protocol has proved over time to be quite effective. (Disclosure: I have been involved in the development of the UDT protocol.)
  • Developing architectures that are effective for high end-to-end performance for transporting large datasets, from disks at one end to disks at the other end.

For the past several years, it has been relatively routine for applications using FAST TCP or UDT to fill a wide area 10 Gbps network link or multiple 10 Gbps network links, if these are available.

Today’s problems include:

  • Connecting data intensive devices and applications to high performance networks. For example, with high throughput sequencing, biology is becoming data intensive, yet very few high throughput sequencing devices are connected to high performance research networks.
  • Incorporating the appropriate network protocols into data intensive applications. For example, one of the reasons, the Sector/Sphere cloud is effective over wide area networks is that it is based upon UDT and not TCP. (Disclosure: I have been involved in the development of the Sector/Sphere cloud.)

I ran into the first problem just after I got back from SC 09. At SC 09, we ran a number of wide area data intensive applications, and in fact won the 2009 BWC for these applications. For example, a new variant of UDT called UDX reached 9.2 Gbps over a network link with 200 ms RTT. In contrast, as soon as I got back to Chicago, I worked for a couple of days trying to get access to 200 GB of sequence data, since the sequencing instrument that produced it was not connected to a high performance network. With the device connected to a high performance research network, the data would have been available in a few minutes.

To summarize, today network experts are comfortable designing systems that can easily fill wide area 10 GE networks, but most analytic applications are not designed to use the required protocols or to to take advantage of high performance networks, and most do not have access to the required networks, even if the applications could benefit from them.

In disciplines, like biology, that are becoming data intensive, this type of analytic infrastructure will provide distinct competitive advantages.

Open Source Cloud Computing Software at SC 09

November 11, 2009

SC 09 is in Portland this coming week from November 14 to 20. The Laboratory for Advanced Computing will have a booth and be showcasing a number of open source cloud computing technologies including:

Sector. Sector/Sphere is a high performance storage and compute cloud that scales to wide area networks. With Sector’s simplified parallel programming framework, you can easily apply a user defined function (UDF) to datasets that fill data centers. The current version of Sector is version 1.24 and includes support for streams and multiple master servers. Sector was the basis for an application that won the SC 08 Bandwidth Challenge. For more information, see sector.sourceforge.net.

As measured by the MalStone Benchmark, Sector was over 2x fast as Hadoop. Sector was one of six technologies selected by SC 09 as a disruptive technology.

How efficient is your cloud?

This snapshot is from the LAC Cloud Monitor monitoring a Sector computation on the Open Cloud Testbed.

Cistrack. The Chicago Utilities for Biological Science or CUBioS is a set of integrated utilities for managing, processing, analyzing and sharing biological data. CUBioS integrates databases with cloud computing to provide an infrastructure that scales to high throughput sequencing platforms. CUBioS uses the Sector/Sphere cloud to process images produced by high throughput sequencing platforms. Cistrack is a CUBioS instance for cis-regulatory data. For more information, see www.cistrack.org.

Canopy. With clouds, it is now possible with a portal to create, monitor, and migrate Virtual Machines (VMs). With the open source Canopy application, it is now possible to create, monitor and migrate Virtual Networks containing multiple VMs connected with virtualized network infrastructure. Canopy provides a standardized library of functions to programatically control switch VLAN assignments to create VNs at line speed. Canopy is an open source project with an alpha releases planned for 2010.

UDT. UDT is a widely deployed (with millions of deployed instances) application level network transport protocol designed for large data transfers over wide area high performance networks. For more information, see udt.sourceforge.net.

UDX. UDX is a version of UDT that is designed for wide area high performance research and corporate networks within a single security domain (UDX does not contain the code UDT uses for transversing fire walls). In recent tests, UDX was able to achieve over 9.2 Gbps on a 10 Gbps wide area testbed. For more information, see udt.sourceforge.net.

LAC Cloud Monitor (LACCM). The LAC Cloud Monitor is a low overhead monitor for clouds that gathers system performance for thousands of servers along multiple dimensions. It integrates with the Argus Monitoring System and Nagios for logging and alerting. LACCM is used to monitor the OCC Open Cloud Testbed. LACCM is open source.

LAC Cloud Scheduler (LACCS)The LAC Cloud Scheduler (LACCS) is a system for scheduling clouds for exclusive use by researchers. It is simple to use, scalable, and easy to deploy. Using LACCS, multiple groups can share easily a local or wide area cloud. LACCS is used for scheduling the Open Cloud Testbed. LACCS is open source.

This is a segment that aired on WTTW’s Chicago Matters about cloud computing that described the Sector/Sphere and the Open Cloud Testbed. You need to select the episode on the right hand side of the page dated November 10, 2009 and titled “Chicago Matters Beyond Burnham (9:40)”